The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Computational fluid dynamics; Fontan procedure.
This hemodynamic feasibility study examined total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) designs connecting the extracardiac conduit to the anterior surface of pulmonary arteries (PAs) or superior vena cava (SVC) rather than to the inferior PA surface (traditional TCPC). The study involved twenty-five consecutive Fontan patients meeting inclusion criteria from a single institution. A virtual surgical platform mimicked the completed traditional TCPC and generated three anterior anastomosis designs: Anterior-PA, Middle-SVC, and SVC-Inn (Inn: innominate vein). Hemodynamic performance of anterior anastomosis designs was compared with the traditional TCPC regarding indexed power loss (iPL) and hepatic flow distribution (HFD). Compared to the traditional TCPC, the Anterior-PA design produces a similar iPL. The Middle-SVC design is also similar, though the iPL difference is positively correlated with the anastomosing height. The SVC-Inn design had significantly more iPL. The three anterior anastomosis designs did not have a significant difference in HFD (from traditional TCPC). Pulmonary flow distribution (PFD) has a stronger correlation with HFD from the anterior anastomosis designs than the traditional TCPC. This hemodynamic feasibility study examined anterior anastomosis, extracardiac TCPC designs that may offer surgeons clinical dexterity. The Anterior-PA design may be equivalent to the traditional TCPC. Fontan extracardiac conduit anastomosis just superior to the PAs (Middle-SVC) also preserves hemodynamic performance and avoids direct PA anastomosis. These designs could simplify surgical Fontan completion, and may particularly benefit patients requiring surgical dissection, having atypical PA orientation, or after PA stent angioplasty.