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Bilingual education among the Karipúna and Galibi-Marwono

Ferreira, Jo-Anne S.

Jo-Anne S. Ferreira

Creoles in Education: An Appraisal of Current Programs and Projects

Bettina Migge, Isabelle Léglise and Angela Bartens

John Benjamins



Creole Language Library


Kheuól or Amazonian (or Amapá or Amerindian) French Creole (AFC) is spoken by the Karipúna and Galibi-Marwono, indigenous Brazilians who also belong to the wider Caribbean French Creole-speaking world. They are bilingual in AFC and Portuguese to varying degrees, and language attitudes vary among groups and villages. Working alongside government agencies, religious organisations have been promoting a three year bilingual education primary school programme among these AFC speakers. It is through bilingual education that many Karipúna and Galibi-Marwono are exposed to Portuguese, the offi cial language and medium of secondary education. The paper offers an overview of bilingual education among these groups, considering the opportunities and challenges for language maintenance, government policies and the materials in use.


French CreoleAmazoniaKaripunaGalibi-MarwonoBilingual Education


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